Covers an area of 25,400 km².
The territory is mostly mountainous. To the north are Kuraminsky ridge and Mogoltau mountains, from the south ridge and Zerafshan -Turkestansky mountains. It shares borders with Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan.
By area include Vorukh enclave, located in the Batken region of Kyrgyzstan; and Sarvak enclave, located in the Pap district of Namangan region of Uzbekistan.
The main rivers — the Syr Darya and Zarafshan. The largest lake — Iskanderkul. Reservoir — Kairakkum, Farkhad, Kattasayskoe and Daganasayskoe.
Climate — continental, dry and depends on the change in altitude. The average January temperature in the valley 0,70-10 ° C, July 28-29 ° C. Annual rainfall of 150-300 mm. In the mountains, cool. The average temperature in January — 40 ° C, July 26 ° C. Precipitation in the mountains (1000 m) to 400 mm; the average temperature in January (at an altitude of 2500-3000 meters) — 9 ° C in July and 15 ° C, annual rainfall of 800 mm.

Leninabad region was one of the first four regions of the country, established by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on 27 October 1939. January 19, 1945 from the southern districts of the region, select the created Ura-Tube region (administrative center — the city of Ura-Tube), which was dissolved in 2 years — January 23, 1947, all areas of the final return of the Leninabad region. The area itself was eliminated March 28, 1962, and vosstanovlena23 December 1970 (for the period of the Tajik SSR, there was no regional division). November 10, 2000 in Sughd region renamed.

Population 1 January 2013 amounted to 2,349 thousand. People, including urban 582.7 thousand. People and rural 1766.3 thousand. Man. The proportion of urban population to total population is 26.1%, agriculture — 73.9%. Population density per sq km was 92.4 people.
The regional center is the city of Khujand with population of 167.4 thousand. People. In the area there are 14 rural districts, 8 cities, 22 urban-type settlements, 93 Jamoat dehot.

Mining and processing of non-ferrous and rare metals. Gold mining, fluorite, coal, oil and associated gas, granite, marble, plaster and other.
Non-ferrous metallurgy, machine building and metalworking (electrical engineering, agricultural and commercial engineering), light (silk, cotton-cleaning, carpet making, knitting and garments, footwear), food processing (canning, vegetable oil, meat, food salt, etc.) industries .
Kairakkum HPP. In 2012, were put into operation three small hydro capacity of 600 kW / h
Industrial centers Khujand, Penjikent, Isfara, Istaravshan, Kanibadam Kairakkum and others.
In agriculture, irrigation plays an important role (Big Ferghana, North Ferghana canals, reservoirs). Main crops — cotton, grain crops. Fruit. Melon. Viticulture. Sericulture. Livestock (on the plain — cattle in the mountains — sheep).
Resort areas: JSC «Sanatorium Bahoriston» Zumrad Oksukon, Istravshan, Havatag. Tourism.

In the 2001 regular functioning 196 kindergartens, which brought 20.8 thousand. Children, 880 day schools, where study over 466.2 thousand. Students, 17 technical schools and other specialized secondary schools, with an enrollment of 8.3 thous. students and 11 independent higher education institutions, which educate 20.4 thous. students.

Provide cultural and educational services to the public 422 mass and universal libraries with a total stock of books and magazines about 3490 thousand., 342 club institutions, 6 theaters and 11 museums.